By 2030, more than 13 million people will die each year of various types of cancer. The most common cancers include: lung cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, colonic or rectal cancer, breast cancer, oesophageal (throat) cancer, cervical cancer, prostate cancer, bladder cancer, pancreatic cancer, blood cancer (leukaemia) and various skin cancers (basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and melanoma). Once such cancers are diagnosed, the most common treatments (radiation therapy and chemotherapy) can in themselves lead to harmful and uncomfortable side-effects.
It is estimated that more than 21 million new cancer cases will be diagnosed every year. In many countries, including America, cancer is already the second most common cause of death (after heart disease) and it is soon likely to replace heart disease as the most prevalent cause of death. This future burden may be increased by unhealthy behaviours and lifestyle choices (e.g. poor diet, physical inactivity or smoking) and changes in reproductive patterns (e.g. fewer children or more advanced age at first childbirth).